# Regular courses

## Applied Electricity - 7 credits

3 major goals are to be attained:

1. Getting insight in the use of mathematical tools to describe the most important experimental classical laws. One starts from the 4 equations of Maxwell. It is demonstrated that when including the law of Lorentz, which expresses the interaction between electrical sources and mechanical forces, any electrical problem can be solved. To achieve this task an introduction on Newtonian potentials is given. Using the theory of Helmholtz, it is shown that the approach of potentials yields an adequate and concise method to tackle electrical problems. This potential theory is also of use in other physical domains then electricity, such as mechanics and hydraulics, and, therefore, this theory is kept as fundamental as possible. The mechanism of conduction in conductors is studied using Ohm's law in local and global form. The resistance is studied as well as the current and voltage distributions in a conductor (calculus methods of Hopkinson). Attention is always drawn on the methods to predict the responses and influences when an electrical source (in scalar or vector form) is applied to a physical system. A mathematical model describing a battery is studied. The same approach to model the sources is also treated for magnetic and dielectric media, whereby an energetic balance is deducted.
2. Introduction to network analysis and theory.
3. Introduction to measurement techniques, including an illustration of the measurment of electrical quantities. Labs are organized for this part of the course

## Applied Statistics - 3 credits

The theory and exercises deal with the following topics

• Introduction
• Dealing with probabilities: why do you need a course on statistics
• Stochastic variables: characterization; physical interpretation
• Probability density functions: description; physical interpretation; relations
• Calculation of uncertainty bounds
• Estimation of parameters
• Hypothesis testing
• Box plot: description, basic idea, applications

## Electromagnetism - 6 credits

Starting from the very general Maxwell equations, we end up with the differential equations that govern the behaviour of the electrical field in free space. This simple differential equation is subsequently solved using simple mathematical functions in different geometries and field configurations.

These use-cases contain both real engineering problems and fair approximations of more complex situations. This includes but is not limited to the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space, or in a guiding structure. Examples used in the course are the coaxial cable, the rectangular metal waveguide and the flat dielectric waveguides.

The dissipative behaviour of the electrical field results in an in-depth analysis of the Skin-effect in plane and cylindrical conductors.

A lot of time and effort is spent to cover the theory and the practical applications of the transmission lines. A whole collection of techniques are explained theoretically and are next illustrated in the tutorials, the exercises, and the laboratory work. Some examples are: the S-parameters, the reflection coefficient, the VSWR, the reflectometric setup, and the singe- and double-stub matching techniques.

Finally some energetic concepts of the propagation of the electromagnetic fields in the free space are touched. The vector of Poynting is used to introduce the basics of the theory of the antennas and to calculate the power balance of a radio propagation.

The course is split in the Lectures and practical work.

## Information and Communication Technology - 3 credits

This work college has multiple aims. First, it is the goal to build a bridge between the highly theoretical courses and the practical applications in order to stimulate the future engineers. Second, it is the aim that the students get in touch with electronics, photonics and information theory (EIT), and in addition has some knowledge about control theory. This will enable the students to make an educated choice about what they want to study later on. A last goal is to inform the non-EIT students about some fundamental aspects on EIT and control theory.

The aim of the work college is to control the heighted of a floating pint-pong ball. This ping-pong ball is positioned within a plexiglas tube and a ventilator blowing in this tube....

## System and Control Theory - 6 credits

The course consists of two parts.
Part 1: Introduction to system theory. Describing the behaviour of linear dynamic systems (continuous time, discrete time) in the time domain and in the frequency domain. It is also shown how these descriptions can be combined with information from measurements (sampling, discrete Fourier transform, reconstruction).

Part 2: analysis (calculus with block diagrams, state equations, time response frequency response, root locus, Nyquis diagram, Bode plot) and design of feedback controllers (state feedback controllers, compensation regulators such as PD, lead, PI, lag, and PID). The course ends with a number of practical examples such as de operational amplifier, de voltageregulator, and the compact disc player