A Novel Wave-Based Stochastic Calibration Framework for High- Frequency Measurement and Modeling

Calibration is essential to any high-frequency measurement. Over the last 50 years, the calibration framework has remained one of S-parameters and deterministic approaches, while applications have undergone a metamorphosis. The introduction of 5G telecom will call for a fast, accurate, and validated characterization of complex systems. The current state-of-the-art calibrations will not meet these demands. Changing the calibration paradigm from S-parameters to waves paves the way to a new calibration for nonlinear and time-varying systems. Why does the proposed framework improve calibration?

  • Waves are primary quantities for the characterization of nonlinear and time-varying system behavior. The proposed wave calibration will therefore result in better calibrations.
  • The proposed stochastic calibration produces calibration functions and their covariance matrix. Calculable uncertainty provides accurate figures-of-merit comparison, and validated estimated models.
  • A calibration speedup is results from the increased spectral line count for nonlinear and/or time- variant modulated systems. A validated, manageable interpolation speeds up the calibration by at least an order of magnitude.
  • Flexibility to mix home-made and metrology grade standards in one custom calibration increases accuracy at a lower cost. It avoids costly and inaccurate multi-tier steps altogether.
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